Louis Alexander の教え|Question-word questions and answers

Louis Alexander の教え|Question-word questions and answers

Louis Alexander の記事の中に、”Question-word questions and answers” と言う記事があります。


疑問詞で始まる疑問文は、”How”を除き、すべて”Wh"で始まります。そのためこのような疑問文は、”Wh-questions”と呼ばれます。この”Wh-questions”を使えるようになることは非常に難しいので、DIRECT ENGLISH では特別な練習方法を用意しています。多くの場合、母語で疑問文を作る方法が、英語で質問を作る場合に悪影響を与えるので、このような練習方法が取り入れられています。

例えば、母語に影響されて次のような疑問文を作ってしまうかもしれません。 “Where you went yesterday?” “Why you arrived late?”, etc.                                       当然ながら、これらは正しい英語ではありません。

英語で正しく“Wh-questions”を作るためには、WHで始まる疑問詞を、Yes/No疑問文の前に置く必要があります。DIRECT ENGLISH では、”Ask me if……” と言う練習方法で、レベル1Unit4Lesson1からこの練習を開始します。

Recording: Ask me if Mr. Yamamoto is in his room. YOU: Is Mr. Yamamoto in his room?
Recording: Where …?
YOU: Where is (Where’s) Mr. Yamamoto? (Not *Where Mr. Yamamoto*, etc.) Recording: Ask me if Carl and Peter went to Latin America.
YOU: Did Carl and Peter go to Latin America? Recording: Where …? YOU: Where did Carl and Peter go? (Not *Where Carl and Peter went*)


“Wh-questions”に答えることはそれほど難しいことではありません。質問の‘target’ が何であるか、それをどのように取り扱ったら良いのか分かるようになるからです。

WHEN …? Target: time.
Answers with: Yesterday, At 4 o’clock, etc.

When did Carl and Peter go to Latin America? – Last year.

WHERE …? Target: place.
Answers with: At (the office), In (the USA), etc.
Where did Mr. Yamamoto stay in Boston? – At the Sheraton.

WHY …? Target: reason.
Answers with: Because … or to-infinitive.
Why did Anne ask Dean some questions? – Because she wanted to find out what he could do.
Why did Anne ask Dean some questions? – To find out what he could do.

WHAT …? Target: object.
Answers with a word, phrase or sentence. What did Kevin order at the restaurant? – A hamburger special with french fries.

WHICH …? Target: choice of two.
Answers with a word or phrase.
Which bag does Carl like best? – The one that’s made of strong nylon.

WHOSE …? Target: possession.
Answers with name + apostrophe s/s apostrophe.
Whose shirt was spoiled at the laundry? – Jeff’s.

WHO(M) …? Target: a person (object). Who(m) did Anne interview? – Dean.

WHO …? Target: a person (subject).
Who took Kevin’s order at the restaurant? – The waiter (did).
(Note Who + verb in this type of question, not “Who did take …?”)

HOW …? Target: manner.
Answers with -ly or By + -ing.
How did George draw a picture? – Very badly. How did George explain his idea to Nina? – By drawing a picture.

Louis Alexander による英語の原文もぜひ読んでみてください。

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